IPPS (International Peace Protest Survey) - This is one of the largest protest surveys ever conducted. As millions of people took the streets on February 15, 2003, protesters were surveyed in eight countries. The survey offers a unique insight into the characteristics, attitudes, and experiences of more than 6,000 respondents. The data are available without restriction from:

CCC (Caught in the act of protest) - One of the most extensive endeavors to record protest participation has been CCC. This survey includes data from nine different countries and covers demonstrations on a variety of topics including anti-austerity protests. The questionnaire is available upon request. The data are not yet available:

ISSP (International Social Survey Programme) - The ISSP is an annual survey held in about 40 countries worldwide. It focuses strongly on civic attitudes and behavior. In particular, the 2004 wave titled ‘Citizenship’ included a wide variety of variables on attitudes and behavior that are of interest to scholars within the field of participation and mobilization. In 2014, another ‘Citizenship’ wave will be conducted. The data are available without restriction from

ESS (European Social Survey) – The ESS has included data on various forms of political participation throughout each of its six waves (2002-2012). As a result, it offers unique data on political participation that can be compared between countries and across time. Data is freely available through:

Country level indicators

Democracy Barometer - The Democracy Barometer from the University of Zurich brings together various indicators and indexes of countries’ democratic quality. These include relevant indicators like corruption, proportionality and centralization. The data are updated until 2012 and are available free of restrictions from:

KOF-index - Processes of globalization are often considered to be relevant to participation and mobilization. The KOF-Index of Globalization from the ETH Zurich offers interesting measures for economic, political and social globalization until 2013 and is available from:

Democracy Time-series Data - Pippa Norris’ Democracy Time-series Data offers a comprehensive set of country level indicators that are used in various multi-level studies on political participation. The data set is available on: